• Environment
  • 2011

Key contributions: energy-efficient building technologies and policies; the Rosenfeld Effect

  • Chemistry
  • 1989

Key contributions: light-independent reactions in plants; discovered the Calvin cycle

  • Chemistry
  • 1986

Key contributions: quantitative bridge between the laws of mechanics and complex macroscopic phenomena

  • Chemistry
  • 1983

Key contributions: inventor of the chemical laser

  • Physical Sciences
  • 1974

Key contributions: thermodynamic properties of molecules

  • Physical Sciences
  • 1963

Key contributions: theoretical physics; the bubble chamber; revolutionized the study of charged particles; the Manhattan Project

  • Environment
  • 2011

Key contributions: energy-efficient building technologies and policies; the Rosenfeld Effect, in which total per capita electricity use has stayed relatively flat in California since the 1970s due to energy efficiency measures while it has risen sharply in the United States.