New theories and 3-D simulations help explain what’s at work in the mysterious jets of energy and matter beaming from the center of galaxies at nearly the speed of light. As much as half of the jets’ energy can escape in the form of X-rays and stronger forms of radiation. Two different mechanisms serve to reduce about half of the energy of these jets.
The researchers were selected by the Department of Energy’s Office of Science to receive significant funding for research through its Early Career Research Program. The program bolsters the nation’s scientific workforce by providing support to exceptional researchers during the crucial early career years, when many scientists do their most formative work.
Lab scientists have developed new computer models to explore what happens when a black hole joins a neutron star, the superdense remnant of an exploded star. The simulations are intended to help detectors home in on the gravitational-wave signals.
A newly discovered collective rattling effect in a type of crystalline semiconductor blocks most heat transfer while preserving high electrical conductivity – a rare pairing that scientists say could reduce heat buildup in electronic devices and turbine engines, among other possible applications.
Scientists have created a “spongy,” light-activated material that converts carbon dioxide into carbon monoxide, which can be further turned into liquid fuels and other useful products without generating unwanted byproducts. This development could help mitigate levels of a potent greenhouse gas while generating solar-powered fuel.
Researchers have found a surprisingly versatile workaround to create chemical compounds that could prove useful for medical imaging and drug development. The chemical mechanism could also broaden our understanding of basic chemical reaction processes involving common helpers, called catalysts, like copper and gold.
Molecular Foundry and Scripps Research Institute scientists have developed a faster and easier way to make sulfur-containing polymers that will lower the cost of large-scale production. The achievement opens the door to creating new products from this class of polymers while producing far less hazardous waste.
By using advanced lighting and automated shades, Berkeley Lab scientists found that occupants on one floor of a high-rise office building in New York City — as part of a “living lab” were able to reduce lighting energy usage by nearly 80 percent in some areas.
India is pushing hard to electrify its automobile market, aiming to sell only electric vehicles (EVs) by 2030. A new report by scientists at Berkeley Lab has found that the prospective EV expansion will deliver economic benefits, help integrate renewable energy, and significantly reduce imports of foreign oil.
The new $9 million project aims to remove technical barriers to commercialization of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), a clean energy technology with the potential to power 100 million American homes. Berkeley Lab will partner with seven other national labs to develop field experiments focused on understanding and modeling rock fractures.