Chapter 32
JOB HAZARDS ANALYSIS

Contents

Approved by John Heim
Revised 08/13

32.1 Policy
32.2 Scope
32.3 Applicability
32.4 Exceptions
32.5 Roles and Responsibilities
32.6 Definitions
32.7 Required Work Processes

Work Process A. Work Flow Diagram and General Requirements
Work Process B. Job Hazards Analysis Process

32.8 Source Requirements
32.9 Reference Documents
32.10 Appendices

Appendix A. Job Hazards Analysis Equivalence Worksheet
Appendix B. Job Hazards Analysis Flowchart
Appendix C. Sample Template for a Task-based Job Hazards Analysis

NOTE:

 

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32.1 Policy

The Job Hazards Analysis (JHA) Program at Berkeley Lab defines the process that analyzes an individual's work and its hazards and produces a Work Authorization document for that work. The Hazards Profile defines the worker's tasks, the hazards associated with those tasks, and the controls for those hazards. The Work Authorization document is the means by which line management authorizes the worker to perform the defined and analyzed work.
Every worker must be either directly supervised or have a current Work Authorization resulting from a JHA process. Unpredictable, short-term, or unusual work that is not included in the individual's JHA Work Authorization must be authorized by a Task-based Work Authorization. Workers must complete the JHA, have the work authorized before it begins, and have the authorization reviewed/updated at least annually from the date of initial authorization or as the job changes significantly.
The JHA Program ensures that process hazards are identified and addressed for the individual worker by:

32.2 Scope

This program applies to all staff, affiliates, and others who perform work at Berkeley Lab. Workers must conduct a JHA as required by this chapter whenever they prepare a new, or review/revise an existing, Work Authorization. 
Subcontractors, including service vendors and construction subcontractors, must comply with the requirements of their subcontracts. In addition, construction subcontractors must comply with the requirements of Construction Safety Manual Administrative Policies and nonconstruction subcontractors must comply with the requirements in the RPM policy, sJHA Process — Subcontractor Job Hazards Analysis.

32.3 Applicability

All Berkeley Lab employees and affiliates

32.4 Exceptions

  1. An employee working at a non-Berkeley Lab facility — including UC Berkeley — that has its own health and safety programs must conform to the requirements of the host institution. If there are no local health and safety programs, a worker must conform to the Berkeley Lab requirements stated in this program.
  2. For certain specific applications, a worker who is a Berkeley Lab affiliate may use an alternate Individual Baseline JHA and Work Authorization process that is equivalent to the Berkeley Lab institutional JHA program described in this program. The determination of equivalence is made by the Environment/Health/Safety (EHS) Division Director after evaluating the information submitted per the worksheet in Appendix A.
  3. If a worker does not have a current Work Authorization, he/she may perform work that has been analyzed for someone else, provided that:
    1. He/she is directly supervised by that person,
    2. That person has been authorized to perform the described work, and
    3. Both adhere to the controls specified for that work.
  4. This exception only applies to the first 30 days of work; after that time, workers must have the Work Authorization in place in order to perform the work.

32.5  Roles and Responsibilities

Role

Responsibilities

Division directors

  • Assure that the JHA process is implemented within the division
  • Assure that Job Hazards Analyses are completed as required
  • Assure that facilitator(s) are available to assist work leads in completing JHAs.  Note: Facilitators are trained by the EHS Division.

Division safety coordinators

  • Assist in the preparation of JHAs, as requested by the division director
  • Act as facilitators as requested by the division director
  • Act as conduits between division work leads and EHS for coordination of Exposure Assessments, as requested

Work leads

  • Assist their direct-report workers to prepare and activate the Individual Baseline JHA
  • Prepare Task-based JHAs for tasks not covered in the Individual Baseline JHAs
  • Prepare JHA Work Group content for inclusion in Individual Baseline JHAs, as appropriate
  • Use the JHA process to authorize work under their control when the tasks, locations, hazards, and controls have been properly analyzed
  • Consult with new workers, or workers whose tasks have changed, to assure that their Hazards Profiles accurately describe the tasks, hazards, and controls inherent in the work
  • Ensure that JHAs are updated and reauthorized annually or more frequently if required
  • Stop authorized work when hazards and controls change, and do not reinitiate work until the JHAs for all workers involved have been updated and reauthorized, and the required controls are in place

Supervisors

  • Assign an appropriate and qualified individual as work lead for each direct report 
  • Ensure that all direct reports complete the JHA process with the assigned work lead
  • Review, and approve as appropriate, any requests by direct reports for opting out of the JHA analysis process, as necessary

Facilitators

Assist work leads in completion of JHAs, as requested

Workers

  • Complete JHA upon initial appointment, whenever there is a change in job assignment that presents new hazards, and on an annual basis. The system is accessible online, and workers may begin this process prior to arriving on site.
  • Consult with the work lead to develop their draft JHAs to a final Work Authorization by verifying work locations, tasks, hazards, and controls
  • Perform work only as analyzed in and authorized by the completed and active JHA
  • Stop work when the tasks, hazards, and/or required controls differ from those authorized in the completed and active JHA. Do not begin work until the JHA accurately describes the work and has been re-authorized.
  • Continually review work and assure that the JHA has analyzed and authorized it appropriately. Engage the work lead to modify the JHA as appropriate.

EHS liaisons

  • Act as primary representatives of the EHS Division to the division safety coordinator, facilitator, and work lead for assisting with JHA
  • Act as facilitators as requested by client divisions
  • Obtain assistance from EHS subject matter experts, as necessary, to properly identify hazards and controls for tasks (including obtaining assistance with Exposure Assessments) as requested by the work lead or division safety coordinator

EHS Division Director

  • Approves alternative JHA processes
  • Maintains software, procedures, and other support tools necessary to prepare JHAs

32.6 Definitions

Term

Definition

Commonly performed by the general public

An activity with hazards commonly accepted by the public, the control of which requires little or no specialized guidance or training to perform the work safely

Control

A device, procedure, or practice that reduces the likelihood that a hazard will cause harm, or that reduces the severity of the harm. Controls include substitution of materials or methods, engineered barriers, administrative procedures (e.g., training), and personal protective equipment.

Current

Status of a JHA when it is authorized and accurately reflects the work at the time the work is conducted. JHAs are maintained “current” by reviewing, updating, and reauthorizing at least annually, and whenever a significant change in the work occurs.

Directly supervised work

Work conducted under line-of-sight supervision by a qualified LBNL employee. The person supervising the work is considered to be the safety line manager for the work and must ensure it is conducted in a safe and healthful manner in compliance with LBNL requirements. Directly Supervised Work is an alternative for a current Work Authorization only during the first 30 days of work.

Exposure assessment

A detailed review of a worker’s exposure(s). Exposure Assessments are generally more rigorous than Hazards Assessments and may be either quantitative, semiquantitative, or qualitative. These assessments are generally conducted by an ES&H professional, which may include LBNL industrial hygienists or safety engineers. These assessments may be conducted for representative employees and are not required to be conducted for each individual.

Hazard

The potential to cause harm. Hazards are associated with tasks; if hazards are not controlled, they can cause illness or injury.

Hazard assessment

A preliminary evaluation (or screening) of an activity to determine if a more comprehensive Exposure Assessment is required. Hazard Assessments can be performed by work leads, supervisors, workers or an EH&S professional. Hazard Assessments are one form of Baseline Exposure Assessment.

Job Hazards Analysis (JHA)

The process that results in a worker hazard and control description (Hazards Profile) and Work Authorization document prepared according to the requirements of this chapter. A JHA includes the following:

  • A description of the work to which the JHA applies
  • Descriptions of:
    • The tasks incorporated into that work
    • The hazards associated with those tasks
    • The controls required to mitigate those hazards, using Exposure Assessment as necessary to evaluate exposures and controls
  • Signatures of the work lead authorizing the work (as analyzed by the JHA with the hazards mitigated by the specified controls) and the worker indicating review of the analysis and understanding of safety requirements of the work
  • The duration for which the work is authorized. The maximum duration of a JHA Work Authorization is one year from the date of the work lead’s authorizing signature.

Significant

A change in work that introduces additional tasks and/or new hazards, or that requires additional controls for the hazards

Supervisor

A person designated through Human Resources and by the division. A supervisor is defined in the Higher Education Employer-Employee Relations Act (see General Policy and Responsibilities).

Task

A discrete element of work

Task-based Job Hazards Analysis

A Hazards Analysis and Work Authorization document that defines the tasks, hazards, and controls that apply to specific processes or work conditions that fall outside the Individual Baseline JHA. Task-based JHAs are generally used for work that is unpredictable, short-term, or unusual. Task-based JHAs are created and authorized through paper-based systems often residing within an individual division.

Work

All LBNL activities undertaken by staff, independent of sponsor, program, or location of activities; a collection of tasks

Work lead

Anyone who directs, trains, and/or oversees the work and activities of one or more workers. Work leads provide instruction on working safely and the precautions necessary to use equipment and facilities safely and effectively. A worker’s default work lead is his/her supervisor, but the supervisor may designate another person to be the work lead. Work leads authorize work with the concurrence of the worker’s supervisor.

Worker

Anyone who performs work at or for Berkeley Lab, including subcontractors and affiliates (see EHSS Manual, General Policy and Responsibilities)

32.7 Required Work Processes

Work Process A. Work Flow Diagram and General Requirements
Work Process B. Job Hazards Analysis Process

Work Process A. Work Flow Diagram and General Requirements

  1. There are two broad categories of Job Hazards Analyses (JHAs): Individual Baseline and Task-based. A Worker’s JHA consists of his/her Individual Baseline JHA and any applicable Task-based JHAs.
    1. Individual Baseline JHA. Identifies the tasks, hazards, and controls that the worker encounters on a regular or routine basis as part of normal work assignments. Individual Baseline JHAs are created and authorized through a software system sponsored by EHS.
    2. Task-based JHA. Identifies the tasks, hazards, and controls that apply to specific processes or work conditions that fall outside of the Individual Baseline JHA. Task-based JHAs are generally used for work that is unpredictable, short-term, or unusual. Task-based JHAs are created and authorized through paper-based systems often residing within an individual division.
  2. The JHA process consists of:
    1. Identifying workers for whom an Individual Baseline JHA will be completed
    2. Identifying the scope of the work to which the JHA will apply
    3. Deciding whether a Task-based JHA is needed in addition to the Individual Baseline JHA, and identifying to which workers it will apply
    4. Collecting work-related data to enable identification of tasks, hazards, and controls that are involved
    5. Preparing a Hazards Profile consisting of the tasks, hazards, and controls through the use of the JHA software (Individual Baseline JHA) or other process (Task-based JHA)
    6. Holding a JHA development work session between the worker and work lead to discuss, modify (if necessary), and validate the Hazards Profile
    7. Signing the Work Authorization form. The work lead’s signature (electronic for Individual Baseline JHA, wet for Task-based JHA) confirms that the Hazards Profile has been discussed with the worker, that readiness review indicates that work may safely proceed, and that he/she authorizes the work to proceed subject to the controls specified on the Work Authorization. The worker’s signature indicates that he/she has reviewed the analysis of the work, and that he/she understands the applicable safety requirements (controls) stated on the Work Authorization.
  3. The JHA process is illustrated by Appendix B, Job Hazards Analysis Flowchart. Additional details are available in Work Process B, Job Hazards Analysis Process.

Work Process B. Job Hazards Analysis Process

  1. Description of Work
    1. The Description of Work statement is a critical element of the JHA. It provides the basis for the further analysis of the tasks, hazards, and controls: Any work performed and analyzed must be described in this statement. When preparing a Description of Work, include at least the following elements, as applicable:
      1. Work Summary. Provide a concise narrative summary of what the work entails, why it is being performed, and what you hope to accomplish with it. This statement defines the context for further analysis.
      2. Work Locations. Where is the work to be performed? Generally, this is a building/room listing but can be broader if applicable (e.g., throughout the shop areas of B77; site-wide indoors, outdoors, and on roofs).You can also break down the materials and processes (see below) by location, if that makes sense.
      3. Materials Used. This description should be sufficiently detailed so that the hazards associated with each material can be assessed. If some members of a family of materials have unique hazards, they should be specified (e.g., specify which types of acids are used, what are the typical compositions of welding rods employed, which hand or power tools are used, etc.).
      4. Processes Employed. Processes and techniques should be listed with sufficient detail so that hazards and potential exposures of the work effort can be determined. For example, “work with chemicals” is not specific enough, nor is “climb ladders.” Neither provides enough detail to determine the hazards/exposures. A better description would be “perform solvent-solvent extractions and acid-base titrations” and “climb stepladders to reach and retrieve items up to 10 feet above the floor.” It may make sense to integrate the “Materials Used” and “Processes Employed” descriptions into one statement (e.g., “perform inert-gas arc welding on aluminum, mild carbon, and stainless steels”).
      5. Equipment Used. Be specific enough that hazards can be determined. Generally this means providing a list of each piece of equipment. Details can be summarized (e.g., “vertical mill” is probably sufficient; the manufacturer and model names probably do not add much to the description).
    2. The Description of Work must be consistent with the Hazards Profile (the tasks, hazards, and controls) that analyzes that work. The description provides information on what the work encompasses, and the Hazards Profile describes the controls necessary to safely conduct that work. If the Hazards Profile contains controls for tasks that are not included in the description, this inconsistency must be corrected. Similarly, if the description implies hazards that are not adequately controlled, that is also an inconsistency.
  2. Tasks, Hazards, and Controls. In analyzing the tasks, hazards, and controls, the following apply:
    1. Tasks that exceed those commonly performed by the general public must be included in the JHA. Examples of tasks that generally would NOT need to be included in the JHA process include:
      1. Walking between buildings.
      2. Telephone use; however, if this use is a significant part of the job, for example, a telephone operator, this might be included in the JHA.
      3. Driving typical passenger vehicles; however, driving a shuttle bus and operating a forklift would be included in the JHA process.
      4. Incidental use of office machines (Desktop computer use averaging over four hours/day, or laptop computer use averaging over two hours/day, is not considered incidental, and should be included in the JHA process.)
    2. Tasks must be described in sufficient detail such that a properly trained individual can assess the hazards. The actual level of detail will depend upon the technical expertise of the worker and the work lead. Table B-1 below provides some examples of inadequate and adequate task descriptions to indicate the proper minimum level of detail:

    3. Table B-1. Examples of Task Descriptions


      Inadequate Descriptions

      Adequate Descriptions

      Lab Work

      Working with chemicals (hazards described in further detail)

      Working with radioactive materials

      Assembly and disassembly of vacuum chambers and other apparatus

      Winding magnets

      Carpentry

      Cutting wood on stationary machinery such as table saws, shapers, and sanders

      Lifting

      Lifting boxes and equipment to heights up to approximately 48” above ground level


    4. Hazards must be described in sufficient detail such that proper controls can be specified. The controls, in turn, must be described in sufficient detail so that an individual can determine exactly what is required. If a hazard has been analyzed in a supplemental document such as a formal authorization (e.g., Radiological Work Authorization, Activity Hazard Document) or an Exposure Assessment, refer to the supplemental document directly rather than restating its contents. If training is a control, the particulars of the training — course number if applicable, or course content if the training is task-specific (e.g., on-the-job training) — should be stated. Examples are given below, in Tables B-2 and B-3:

    Table B-2. Examples of Hazard Descriptions

    Inadequate Descriptions

    Adequate Descriptions

    Chemicals

    Skin, eye, or inhalation exposure to, or property damage caused by, corrosive materials

    Skin, eye, or inhalation exposure to, or fire from, flammable materials

    Select carcinogens

    Exposure

    Electrical shock and arc flash

    Physical Hazards

    Laceration

    Trips, slips, falls from heights; injuries to persons below from dropped objects

    Musculoskeletal discomfort or injury


    Table B-3. Example Control Descriptions


    Inadequate Descriptions

    Adequate Descriptions

    Use proper Personal Protective Equipment

    Wear lab coats, closed-toe shoes, and safety glasses with side shields whenever handling chemicals.

    Use nitrile gloves whenever handling chemicals, unless other gloves are located at that work location.

    Wear earmuffs when operating the chop saw.

    Hand protection

    Wear leather gloves or equivalent whenever handling sheet metal.

    Lift carefully

    Have a second person assist with the lift.

    Training

    EHS0042, Implementing Safety: Supervisors and Work Leads.

    Task-specific on-the-job training, as documented in the lab notebook.


  3. JHA Development Work Session
    1. During the JHA development work session, the worker and work lead together review the draft Hazards Profile, making changes necessary to accurately describe the tasks performed and the associated hazards and controls. The work lead and worker should add tasks and associated hazards and controls if they are not described in the Hazards Profile, and delete any that are listed but not applicable.
      1. Where required to support the development of controls, request an Exposure Assessment through the Division Safety Coordinator. See Exposure Assessment for more information.
      2. A facilitator (e.g., an EHS liaison, division safety coordinator, EHS subject matter expert, etc.) can be requested to assist in the JHA development work session.
      3. If necessary, a draft Hazards Profile may be saved and the process resumed at a later date.
    2. Upon agreement that the Hazards Profile accurately reflects the tasks, hazards, and controls for the work, the work lead signs the document. This signature creates the Work Authorization; confirms that the Work Authorization has been discussed with the worker and that readiness review indicates that work may safely proceed; and authorizes the work, subject to the controls specified. If some portions of the work require controls that are not in place (for example, training, additional analysis, or formal authorization), the worker may not perform that portion of the work until the required controls are in place.
    3. The Baseline JHA document is prepared by the JHA software.
  4. The Individual Baseline Job Hazards Analysis
    1. Work Authorizations. All workers must have a Work Authorization that contains the elements defined in Work Process A.
    2. Hazards Profile. A Hazards Profile is created by answering questions about one’s work, with the answers supplemented by one or more predefined Work Group Hazards Profiles. The process is illustrated in Appendix B, Job Hazards Analysis Flowchart, Path 2. Work Group Hazards Profiles are not required but are suggested to provide consistency of analysis within a set of workers conducting similar work.
    3. Creating a Draft Individual Baseline JHA. Responses to questions posed by the JHA system generate preliminary information regarding tasks and hazards to which the worker may be exposed. This information is then used during a JHA development work session as a draft Hazards Profile.
    4. Using a Work Group JHA to Create a Draft Hazards Profile
      1. In many work situations, it is appropriate to have a predefined set of tasks, hazards, and controls that are common to a group of workers. This predefined Work Group Baseline JHA can be used as a template for a Hazards Profile during the JHA process. Using the Work Group JHA approach assures that:
        1. A new member of the group who is uncertain of his/her assigned tasks and locations will have a starting point of reference.
        2. All members of the group are properly authorized for tasks that they will be conducting.
        3. The work group owner performs the bulk of the analysis for work under his/her control, and assures that hazards are identified and controls applied consistently.
      2. To create a Hazards Profile, the owner of that Work Group JHA (who may be the work lead) does the following:
        1. Determines the members of the work group. A work group is a set of individuals having common administrative structure that performs similar tasks with common hazards and controls.
        2. Contacts the division safety coordinator to initiate the Work Group JHA creation process. The work group owner will be given access to create Work Group JHAs by JHA system administrators at the request of the division safety coordinator.
          • The division safety coordinator (and any additional personnel requested, such as subject matter experts) assists the work group owner in defining the parameters that constitute the group, including members, scope of the work, tasks included and excluded, hazards, and controls. Work Group JHAs are generated by the work group owner’s responses to the JHA questions as they apply to the work group. The end product is a Work Group Baseline JHA rather than a draft Individual Baseline JHA.
        3. Stores the completed Work Group Baseline JHA, which makes it available for use by members of the group.
      3. The group should be created at as high an organizational level as is consistent with clearly defined administrative structure, tasks, hazards, and controls. The precise level depends on each division’s management structure. In some divisions, it may be appropriate to define the group at the department level, while in other divisions, it may be more appropriate to define the group at the level of each research unit (or possibly lower, if the size and diversity of the research unit call for it).
      4. The work group owner may make changes to the Work Group JHA at any time. These changes affect future users of that template, but do not affect previous users.
  5. Task-based Job Hazards Analysis
    1. Some tasks are unpredictable, short-term, or unusual in nature, such that including them in the Individual Baseline JHA is not efficient. A Task-based JHA may be developed for these activities. Task-based JHAs are addenda to a worker’s Individual Baseline JHA, and exist only for the duration of the task. Examples of situations that might be appropriate for a Task-based JHA include:
      1. Work requests through the Facilities Division
      2. Research field work
      3. Nonrecurring laboratory tasks, e.g., cleaning reactors, etc.
    2. Task-based JHAs can be created through a variety of methods. The process is illustrated in Appendix B, JHA Process Flowchart, Path 1.
    3. The Individual Baseline JHA process can be used with the following modifications:
      1. The Task-based JHA process is not automated. Rather, it utilizes a paper process to create the Task-based JHA from a form that must be manually completed.
      2. Initial information regarding tasks and hazards is not obtained through answering a predefined list of questions. Rather, it is obtained through review of the work assignment, job walk, discussion with vendors or suppliers, and/or discussion between the worker and work lead. This information is then used during the JHA development work session as a draft scope, task, hazard, and control list for the Task-based Hazards Profile.
      3. Upon agreement that the Task-based Hazards Profile accurately reflects the tasks, hazards, and controls for the work, the work lead signs the document. This signature creates the Task-based Work Authorization; confirms that the Work Authorization has been discussed with the worker and that readiness review indicates that work may safely proceed; and authorizes the work, subject to the controls. If some portions of the work require controls that are not in place (for example, training, additional analysis, or formal authorization), the worker may not perform that portion of the work until the required controls are in place.
      4. A sample template for the Task-based Job Hazards Analysis is available for download from Appendix C.
    4. Divisions may use a Task-based Job Hazards Analysis process developed internally that satisfies their business needs. Any alternative Task-based JHA processes must be described in the Division’s ISM Plan, and must be reviewed and approved by the EHS Division Director.

32.8 Source Requirements

32.9 Reference Documents

Document Number

Title

Type

N/A JHA Database Online Database

07.01.002.001

EHSS Core policy

Program

07.07.013.001

Exposure Assessment

Program

07.02.003.001

Safe Work Authorizations

Program

07.07.011.001

Electrical Safety

Program

07.07.007.001

Construction

Program

07.08.001.001

Radiation Safety

Program

07.04.001.001

EHSS Training

Program

07.07.004.001

Biosafety

Program

07.02.04.001

Subcontractor Job Hazard Analysis

Program

PUB-3140

Integrated Environment, Safety & Health Management Plan

Program

Other References

Note: These are past requirements and are no longer in the Lab's DOE contract:

32.10 Appendices

Appendix A. Job Hazards Analysis Equivalence Worksheet
Appendix B. Job Hazards Analysis Flowchart
Appendix C. Sample Template for a Task-based Job Hazards Analysis

Appendix A. Job Hazards Analysis Equivalence Worksheet

Go here to download the Job Hazards Analysis Equivalence Worksheet.

Appendix B. Job Hazards Analysis Flowchart

Appendix C. Sample Template for a Task-based Job Hazards Analysis

Go here to download a sample template for the Task-based Job Hazards Analysis.

 

 

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