Chapter 27
Cranes, Hoists, and Rigging Safety

Contents

Approved by Michael Wisherop
Revised 07/12

 

NOTE:
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27.1 Policy

27.2 Scope

27.3 Applicability

27.4 Roles and Responsibilities

27.5 Definitions

27.6 Required Work Processes

Work Process A. General Requirements for Crane Operation

Work Process B. Procurement and Maintenance of Cranes and Hoisting and Rigging Equipment

Work Process C. Authorization and Qualification to Use Cranes

Work Process D. Restricted Operations

Work Process E. Mobile Cranes

Work Process F. Crane Inspections

Work Process G. Rigging and Other Below-the-Hook Devices and Fixtures

27.7 Standards

27.8 Related PUB-3000 Chapters

27.9 References

Appendix A. Typical Pre-use Inspection Tags


 

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27.1 Policy

Persons involved in crane or hoist operations at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) must:

The designated operator must be qualified and authorized to use specific equipment.

Crane, hoist, and rigging equipment must be procured through the Facilities Division, as well as properly inspected, tested, and maintained.

27.2 Scope

Berkeley Lab’s Crane Safety Program is implemented through planning, authorization, qualification, and the appropriate use of properly inspected and rated hoisting equipment and rigging. Lifting and moving loads with forklifts is covered in PUB-3000, Chapter 28, Forklifts and Other Powered Industrial Trucks. Construction operations involving cranes are covered in Chapter 10, Construction Safety.

27.3 Applicability

This policy establishes requirements for Berkeley Lab’s Crane, Hoisting, and Rigging Safety Program and applies to work with any crane or hoist operated at Laboratory-owned or -leased property, as well as Laboratory-managed field research. This program applies to the following Berkeley Lab personnel:

  1. Employees
  2. Affiliates
  3. Construction contractors
  4. Nonconstruction contractors and vendors

27.4 Roles and Responsibilities

Role

Responsibility

Supervisors and Work Leads

  • Ensure that personnel know how to safely operate cranes and hoists, and how to move objects safely
  • Ensure that only formally trained and certified employees may operate a crane or hoist
  • Enforce the use of safe lifting techniques
  • Maintain lifting equipment in good mechanical and operating condition

Crane Manager

A Berkeley Lab employee must be identified as the Crane Manager for each Berkeley Lab-owned crane or hoist, unless it is locked out.

  • Identifies oneself, in writing, as the Crane Manager to the Environment, Health & Safety (EH&S) Division Crane Safety Subject Matter Expert (SME) at cranesafety@lbl.gov or Mail Stop 75B0101
  • Possesses a valid certificate for the operation of the crane in question
  • Controls the use of the crane, and limits use of the crane to qualified operators
  • Maintains control of any keys or other mechanisms for limiting crane use
  • Maintains any logbooks used in lieu of inspection tags
  • Limits crane use to previously authorized operators
    • A qualified backup Crane Manager who has been identified to the Crane Safety SME may issue new crane authorizations in the absence of the Crane Manager.
  • Notifies the EH&S Crane Safety SME (cranesafety@lbl.gov, Mail Stop 75B0101) of any change

Employees (Operators, Riggers, and Helpers)

  • Maintain training and medical qualification
  • Safely operate cranes
  • Possess a valid Berkeley Lab Crane Operator’s License
  • Are certified by an independent certification agency as competent and qualified operators of mobile cranes with a greater-than-two-ton capacity
  • Follows all established safety regulations related to safe lifting and handling techniques

Mechanical Engineering Designee

  • Reviews and approves Engineering Safety Notes for lifting fixtures and high-consequence/high-value lifts/moves on behalf of the Engineering Division Director and for the Mechanical Engineering Subcommittee of the Safety Advisory Committee
  • Approves reasonable engineering alternatives not in conflict with Berkeley Lab’s Environment, Safety & Health Standards Set
  • Furnishes guidance to Berkeley Lab staff

Responsible Designer

  • Incorporates the requirements of the Cranes, Hoists, and Rigging Safety program into the design of lifting fixtures and procedures
  • Initiates the required proof testing
  • Obtains design approval by means of an Engineering Safety Note

Customer Management

  • Defines and requests any lift/move
  • Determines which lifts are high-consequence/high-value lifts/moves
  • Writes lifting procedures where required
  • Provides technical information on relevant characteristics of the apparatus, including special lifting fixtures when required
  • Assigns someone to represent the customer during planning and coordination of all aspects of the job being performed
  • Provides suggestions on rigging and moving
  • Ensures that lifting devices and lifting fixtures are properly documented and inspected, and that they are used and maintained safely
  • Requests the Facilities Division to prepare the Engineering Safety Note, and to manage the move on the Work Request as needed

Facilities Division Structural Engineering Group Designee

  • Evaluates building floor loading, lifting fixtures, and lifting devices for structural adequacy
  • Reviews and approves Engineering Safety Notes for lifting fixtures, lifting devices, and high-consequence/high-value lifts on behalf of the Facilities Division and the Mechanical Engineering Subcommittee of the Safety Advisory Committee
  • Establishes design parameters for all cranes and hoists
  • Provides guidance on wind loading for outdoor lifts/moves
  • Provides Berkeley Lab staff with guidance on lift-related matters

Facilities Division Rigging Supervisor

  • Provides guidance and supervision for routine lifts when requested
  • Participates in the development and review of high-consequence/high-value lifts/moves
  • Participates in pre-lift meetings

Facilities Division Crane Maintenance Vendor

  • Arranges for all inspection, testing, and certification of cranes, hoists, and rigging
  • Arranges for the testing and certification of lifting devices and lifting fixtures

Facilities Division Maintenance Manager

  • Establishes the scope of work for the Facilities Division Crane Maintenance Vendor
  • Follows technical advice from the Facilities Division Crane Maintenance Vendor to ensure that Laboratory purchases of crane, hoist, and rigging equipment, components, and devices are traceable (through documentation) to a reputable U.S. manufacturer

EH&S Division Crane Safety SME

  • Manages the Cranes, Hoists, and Rigging Safety program  
  • Reviews Engineering Safety Notes for high-consequence/high-value lifts/moves
  • Conforms to Cranes, Hoists, and Rigging Safety program requirements
  • Participates in pre-lift meetings for high-consequence/high-value lifts/moves
  • Notifies the Facilities Division Crane Maintenance Vendor to lock all cranes and hoists that do not have an official Crane Manager

Person In Charge

The customer may be a manager, engineer, or other responsible person (other than the operator).

  • Handles high-consequence/high-value lifts/moves in a safe manner

 

27.5 Definitions

Term

Definition

Crane

A machine used for lifting and lowering a load vertically and moving it horizontally, and that has a hoisting mechanism

Engineering Note

A detailed description of a (fixture) design, or a detailed description of a high-consequence/high-value lift/move, including protection of the load, rigging, and method(s) of transport

High-Consequence/High-Value Lift/Move

  • The customer’s designation for parts, components, assemblies, or lifting operations that could have the following consequences in the event of falling from a crane or colliding with other objects:
    • Damages in excess of $500,000 (This does not apply to routine movements of shielding blocks performed by members of the professional rigging crew.)
    • Significant work delays or programmatic impacts
    • Undetectable damages resulting in future operational or safety problems
    • A significant release of radioactivity or another undesirable condition
    • A potentially unacceptable risk of personnel injury or property damage
  • Any lift/move that requires the simultaneous use of both the main and auxiliary hoists of a given crane or the simultaneous use of two cranes

Hoist

A device that applies a force for lifting and lowering

Lifting Device

A device, other than a sling, used below the hoisting hook for attaching loads to a hoist. There are four types of lifting devices:

  • Structural and mechanical lifting devices (e.g., spreader bars, plate clamps, gripping devices, etc.)
  • Vacuum lifting devices
  • Close proximity lifting magnets
  • Remotely operated lifting magnets

Lifting Fixture

A fixture used below the hoisting hook designed and engineered for lifting a specific item

Mobile Crane

A crane system fixed to a vehicle, typically a truck

Overhead Crane

A crane system fixed to a structure, including but not limited to bridge cranes, monorail cranes, gantry cranes, and jib cranes

Rigging

  • The hardware or equipment used to safely attach a load to a hook or lifting device
  • The art or process of safely attaching a load to a hook by means of an adequately rated and properly applied sling and related hardware

27.6 Required Work Processes

Work Process A. General Requirements for Crane Operation

The work flowchart below provides a step-by-step overview of crane and hoist operations requirements (go here to download a PDF of the flowchart):

The following rules apply to all use of crane and hoist operations at Berkeley Lab.

Suspended Loads

These rules apply to operators of suspended loads:

Component Failure or Unintended Movement

If any component fails during a lift, or if there is any uncontrolled or unintended motion of the load during the lift, the lift must be terminated immediately in the safest manner possible. Immediately notify the Crane Manager of the component failure. Contact EH&S and the Facilities Division Rigging Supervisor.

Lifting may only resume after the failure or unintended motion has been investigated, and appropriate corrective steps have been implemented.

Securing Cranes

Any electric-powered crane, when not attended by a qualified operator during an entire shift and off-hours, must be secured by locked controls or equivalent means to prevent access to the crane, such as locking the doors or locking up radio controls. Only the Crane Manager or another qualified and authorized user of the secured crane may have control of the locking mechanism.

Work Process B. Procurement and Maintenance of Cranes and Hoisting and Rigging Equipment

Approval from the Facilities Division Maintenance Manager must be obtained before purchasing hoists or cranes, or lifting equipment such as shackles, clevises, wire rope or fabric slings, or spreader bars (strongbacks). Procurement will not process any purchase orders for such equipment without this approval. The preferred method for ordering hoisting and rigging equipment is to request that the Facilities Division Maintenance Manager or designee (ext. 7667) order the items, using an account number provided by the requester.

If used equipment is procured, it must be inspected and certified to meet all applicable standards in force at the time of the acquisition.

For Berkeley Lab—designed and/or fabricated lifting devices, see Work Process G.

When equipment is received, the recipient must contact the Facilities Division Crane Maintenance Vendor (ext. 7667 or cranesafety@lbl.gov) to have the equipment inventoried for routine inspection and maintenance. All hoisting and rigging equipment (except when impractical, e.g., shackles, swivel lifting rings, etc.) used at the Laboratory must have a Laboratory proof-load tag attached with a current inspection sticker. The user, supervisor, and operator are directly responsible for verifying the presence of current, proper tagging of hoisting and rigging equipment prior to use.

Work Process C. Authorization and Qualification to Use Cranes

All crane use must be authorized by an employee’s Job Hazards Analysis (JHA), and by the Crane Manager for the particular crane(s) to be operated. The Crane Manager is a qualified crane operator who has been designated as the individual responsible for the safe operation of a specific crane. Before operating a crane in an area for the first time or in a new application, employees must discuss the proposed crane use with the Crane Manager and obtain approval. The Crane Manager will determine whether the operator is familiar with the controls for that particular crane and knows how to properly rig loads, and will verify that crane use will not conflict with other operations in the area.

Cranes may also be operated by qualified Crane Service personnel who have been authorized by either a JHA (for the on-site Facilities Division Crane Maintenance Vendor) or a SWJHA, and have been subcontracted to install, maintain, or repair cranes.

Qualifications, Training, Certification, and Approval Requirements for Overhead Crane and Hoist Operators

The operation of overhead cranes and hoists is restricted to trained personnel who have completed Berkeley Lab—required training, and who have been certified in accordance with the requirements of this chapter. This includes the operation of cranes without a load for any reason. Requirements for operating mobile cranes can be found in Work Process F.

To become certified for operating cranes up to a two-ton capacity, the following requirements must be met:

Note that crane and hoist operators with this certification may NOT operate cranes or hoists with a capacity of greater than two tons to lift loads of less than two tons or without any load.

To become certified for operating overhead cranes or hoists with a capacity of greater than two tons, the following is required:

Crane operators must renew their training every three years, and must be medically recertified every three years.

Work Process D. Restricted Operations

High-Consequence/High-Value Lifts and Moves

The customer (i.e., the manager who requires the items to be moved) or a program organization designates parts, components, assemblies, or lifting operations as high-consequence/high-value lifts/moves, because the effect of those items falling from the crane, or colliding with other objects, could:

In addition, any lift/move that requires the simultaneous use of both the main and auxiliary hoists of a given crane or the simultaneous use of two cranes must be considered a high-consequence/high-value lift/move.

High-Consequence/High-Value Lift/Move Requirements

A detailed, step-by-step procedure in the form of an Engineering Note must be prepared for each high-consequence/high-value lift/move. This requirement covers lifts and moves performed with forklifts or cranes. An Engineering Note template may be obtained from the Engineering Division at https://dcc.lbl.gov/dcc/EngNotes.php. While high-consequence/high-value lift procedures are customarily prepared for one-time use, general high-consequence/high-value lift procedures may be employed to accomplish routine, recurrent high-consequence/high-value lift operations. For example, a general high-consequence/high-value lift procedure may be applied to lift shielding blocks or a frequently lifted item. Examples can be found through the search page of the Berkeley Lab Engineering Note Repository at https://dcc.lbl.gov/dcc/EngNotes.php (enter the keywords “high value” in the Title 3 field).

The customer, i.e., the Laboratory manager who requires the item to be moved, is responsible for preparing the high-consequence/high-value lift/move Safety Engineering Note. The customer can discharge this responsibility by indicating on the Facilities Work Request that the scope of work should include preparation of the Engineering Safety Note and management of the move. It is the responsibility of the customer to notify all personnel whose approval is required early in the process. See High-Consequence/High-Value Move Lift/Move Approval below.

Approvers have special expertise and are available to provide guidance during the design of the lifting procedure. Please allow sufficient time for the review-and-approval process. There is no charge for the review-and-approval process.

The procedure must contain the following:

High-Consequence/High-Value Lift/Move Approval

The procedure must be reviewed and approved by:

All reviewers should be consulted early in the process to ensure their concerns are addressed, avoiding the need for later revisions to the procedure.

Unanticipated conditions may require on-the-spot changes of the lift procedure. Approvers of the lift procedure should be present during the lift or at least immediately available to approve changes. Changes must be recorded on the procedure and initialed by all available approvers before they are implemented.

Personnel Participating in High-Consequence/High-Value Lifts/Moves

Each person involved in a high-consequence/high-value lift/move must be familiar with the procedure before beginning work. A pre-lift meeting with all participating personnel must be held before the lift. All participating personnel must initial the procedure sign-off sheet to verify that they are familiar with the procedure.

Cab-Operated Cranes

Operation of cranes from a cab is restricted to professional riggers. The following rules apply to cab-operated cranes:

Heavy Lifts

Heavy lifts should be made by the professional rigging crew that performs such work routinely. Where there is a need for other personnel to lift loads over 10,000 lb., and lifts exceeding 75% of the cranes maximum capacity, the proposed lift must be reviewed with and approved informally by the supervisor of the professional rigging crew or his or her designee.

Tilting Loads

Using a crane to tilt a load (standing up a load that is lying down or vice versa) carries a significant risk of shock-loading the crane or losing control of the load. When such operations involve loads that exceed 50% of the rated capacity of the crane, they must be reviewed by and may be performed only with the informal approval of the supervisor of the professional rigging crew or his or her designee. If two hooks are required to tilt the load, follow the high-consequence/high-value lift procedures listed above.

Work Process E. Mobile Cranes

The operation of mobile cranes is restricted to those who have been certified as competent and qualified mobile crane operators by an independent certification agency. The Facilities Division Riggers have authorized and qualified mobile crane operators.

Mobile crane operations for construction have additional requirements, which are found in PUB-3000, Chapter 10. For the purpose of the Berkeley Lab Cranes, Hoisting, and Rigging Program, small truck-mounted jib cranes with capacities of less than 2 tons are not considered mobile cranes. Mobile crane operations are conducted in accordance with all applicable Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) (and Cal/OSHA for construction) requirements.

Any mobile crane, when not attended by a qualified operator during an entire shift or during off-hours, must be secured by locked controls or equivalent means to prevent access to the crane, such as locking the doors or locking up radio controls. Only the Crane Manager or another qualified and authorized user of the secured crane may have control of the locking mechanism.

Work Process F. Crane Inspections

Each crane or hoist must be inspected by a qualified crane operator before use, during any given work shift. The inspection can be documented either on a tag attached to the crane controls or in a log that is kept with the key to the crane controls. If the crane is not used during any shift, it does not need to be inspected. However, each crane must be given a documented operator inspection at least once a month whether or not it is used during the month of the inspection. Inspection tags will be collected by the Facilities Division Crane and Hoist Services Contractor and kept on record. Where applicable, crane inspection logs will be reviewed by the Crane and Hoist Services Contractor. Typical crane inspection checklists are shown in Appendix A of this PUB-3000 chapter.

All other required equipment inspections and tests are performed by the Facilities Division Crane and Hoist Services Contractor. Equipment and the frequency of equipment inspections and tests are listed in a Facilities Division database as required by applicable regulations and/or standards. Facilities Division Crane Maintenance Vendor work orders are automatically generated monthly and are based on information in the database.

Work Process G. Rigging and Other Below-the-Hook Devices and Fixtures

The crane operator is responsible for verifying that the load is properly rigged. The crane operator must also take the following precautions when performing work:

Inspection and Testing of Lifting Devices

Each division is responsible for the safety and pre-use inspection of its lifting devices (such as screw pin shackles, hoist rings, commercial equipment, etc.) and for its lifting fixtures (such as spreader bars, special slings, equipment designed at Berkeley Lab, etc.). Berkeley Lab proof-load tags and inspection stickers must be current, where applicable. Special-purpose lifting fixtures must be marked with a Laboratory equipment number and labeled to identify applicable Engineering Safety Notes for fixture design and/or high-consequence/high-value lifts/moves.

All lifting fixtures designed at the Laboratory must be proof-tested to twice their maximum rated loads before being placed in service. A Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) is required after the proof test. The exact type of NDE must be specified in the Engineering Safety Note for the lifting fixture. The rated capacity must be marked on the lifting fixture so that it is clearly visible to the equipment operator.

Order commercially available lifting fixtures through the Facilities Division Maintenance Manager or Designee to assure they are ordered with a certificate of proof load testing. For commercial lifting fixtures without certified load ratings, an Engineering Safety Note must be written to determine the safe load capacity and furnish guidance for load testing.

Where the lifting fixture cannot be proof-tested because it is an integral part or component of the experimental device, equivalent alternative safety precautions acceptable to the Mechanical Engineering designee must be described in the Engineering Safety Note, which delineates the lift procedure.

All lifting device pins of 5 cm (2 in.) in diameter or larger must have a magnetic-particle inspection before they are placed in service. These pins are always part of a lifting device or fixture. Make arrangements with the Facilities Division Crane Maintenance Vendor, ext. 7667, or the Work Request Center, ext. 6274, to have lifting fixtures inspected.

Active lifting devices and fixtures must be examined by an NDE at least once every four years (or upon request), using magnetic-particle detection or other appropriate methods. Make arrangements to have lifting fixtures inspected with the Facilities Division Crane Maintenance Vendor, ext. 7667, or contact the Work Request Center, ext. 6274. Records must be maintained by the Facilities Division and NDE organizations. Inactive lifting devices and fixtures must be clearly marked “STOP: DO NOT USE,” and must be load tested and certified prior to renewed use.

The Responsible User must ensure that:

The Responsible Designer must obtain design approval by means of an Engineering Safety Note, as described below. For equipment designed at the Laboratory, the Responsible Designer must provide the user with the information required to operate the lifting device or fixture safely. The Facilities Division will provide a test report to the user upon request.

Design of Lifting Fixtures

A qualified engineer must be designated to be responsible for the design, fabrication, and testing of lifting fixtures not purchased commercially. The actual physical testing usually will be performed by the Facilities Division in accordance with the written test procedure specified by the Project Engineer.

All lifting fixtures designed or fabricated at the Laboratory must be covered by an Engineering Safety Note. The Engineering Safety Note must include the calculation of lifting fixture stresses and deflections, and must be reviewed and approved by:

The design stress for lifting fixtures or lifting attachment points must not exceed one-fifth the ultimate strength of the material at its operating temperature. If welded fabrication is used, the design stress must take into consideration any weakening effects of welding, such as those that occur in aluminum alloys.

If practical, avoid welding in the fabrication of lifting fixtures. If welding must be used, design and fabrication in conformance with the latest standards of the American Welding Society (AWS) are required. Careful, thoughtful design and follow-up are required.

Follow these rules for all lifting fixtures:

Any deviation from these rules requires equivalent alternative safety measures that have been explicitly approved by the Mechanical Engineering Department designee.

Single-Bolt Pickup Devices

When equipment is designed to be crane-lifted at a single point with a single-bolt pickup device, the vertical lifting load through the screw thread of the bolt must be in line with the axis of the bolt so the load will remain level when it is lifted. With this bolt alignment, the lift will be through the center of gravity and will be safer, since the load will not tilt or kick out when it is lifted. A single-bolt pickup device must be used, such as a safety hoist ring or an equivalent in-house device that is carefully designed and maintained. The threaded engagement must comply with the requirements in the Design of Lifting Fixtures section, above.

When a load is to be crane-lifted by slings from a crane hook through two, three, or four pickup points located at the corners of the load, and without the use of a spreader bar, the forces at the lift points are nonvertical. Again, a single-bolt pickup device, such as a safety hoist ring or an equivalent in-house device that is carefully designed and maintained must be used at each pickup point.

Eyebolts without shoulders are not allowed for use in lifting any load. Eyebolts with shoulders are permitted for lifting loads when the following conditions are met:

The use of unrated eyebolts or eyebolts in applications not specifically approved by the manufacturer must be specifically approved by an Engineering Safety Note.

27.7 Standards

29 CFR 1910, Occupational Safety and Health Standards for General Industry, Subpart N — Materials Handling and Storage, Paragraphs:

1910.179, Overhead and Gantry Crane

1910.180, Crawler, Locomotive and Truck Cranes

1910.184, Slings

29 CFR 1926, Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Construction, 1926 Subpart CC, Paragraph 1926.251, Rigging Equipment for Material Handling

California Code of Regulations, Title 8, Subchapter 4, Construction Safety Orders (as it pertains to cranes used in construction work)

27.8 Related PUB-3000 Chapters

27.9 References

Appendix A.  Typical Pre-use Inspection Tag

 

Figure A-1. Front of Daily Crane Inspection Tag


Figure A-2. Back of Daily Crane Inspection Tag

 

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