Chapter 12
FIRE PREVENTION AND PROTECTION

Contents

Approved by Geoffrey Aus
Revised 02/14


12.1 Policy
12.2 Emergency Procedures for Fires and Other Fire-Related Emergencies

12.3 Emergency Procedures for Hazardous Material Spills

12.4 Medical Emergencies

12.5 Fire Protection Equipment (Work Process B)

12.5.1 Portable Fire Extinguishers
12.5.2 Fire Detection Systems
12.5.3 Evacuation Alarms
12.5.4 Automatic Sprinklers
12.5.5 Fire Doors and Dampers
12.5.6 Fire Hydrants
12.6 Hot Work Permits (Work Process H)
12.6.1 Permit Process 12.7 Combustibles (Work Process F, Work Process G)
12.7.1 Class A Combustibles
12.7.2 Class B Combsutibles
12.7.3 Class C Combustibles
12.7.4 Class D Combustibles
12.7.5 Class K Combustibles
12.8 Portable Heating Devices (Work Process J)
12.8.1 Portable Space Heaters
12.8.2 Other Portable Heating Devices (Coffee Pots and Hot Plates)
12.9 Fire Doors and Dampers
12.10 Construction/Renovation
(Work Process L)
12.10.1 Construction/Renovation Review and Approval
12.10.2 Construction Areas
12.11 Emergency Lighting
12.12 Exit Signs

12.13 Path Markings
12.14 Exit Corridors
12.15 Lockers and Cabinets

12.16 Smoking

12.17 Seasonal Decorations

12.17.1 Christmas Trees
12.17.2 Candles
12.18 New Experiments and Research Activities (Work Process C)
12.19 Facility Assessment and Appraisal Program (Work Process K)
12.20 Roles and Responsibilities

12.21 Glossary

12.22 Standards

12.23 Related PUB-3000 Chapters

12.24 References

12.25 Appendices
Appendix A: Berkeley Lab Fire Protection Program
1.0 Berkeley Lab Fire Protection Overview
2.0 Exemptions and Equivalencies (Work Process M)
3.0 Fire Protection Engineering
4.0 Environmental/Public Protection
5.0 Facility Assessment and Appraisal Program
6.0 Fire Department Operations / Emergency Response
Appendix A1. Fire Protection Review Comments
Appendix A2. Project Plan Review (Line Item and GP Projects)
Appendix A3. Project Construction Complete Review (Line Items and GP Project)
Appendix B. Fire Alarm (Not used)
Appendix C. LBNL EH&S Division Self-Conducted Facility Fire Protection Survey Report
Appendix D. (Not used)
Appendix E. Supplemental Engine Company Fire Inspection Report
Appendix E1. Engine Company Fire Inspection Report

Table 12-1. Effective Fire Extinguishers for Burning Materials
Table 12-2. Maximum Sizes of Containers for Combustible and Flammable Liquids

NOTE:
. . . . . Denotes a new section.
. . . . . . . . Denotes the beginning of changed text within a section.
. . . . . . . . Denotes the end of changed text within a section.

____________________

12.1 Policy

The fire prevention and protection policy at LBNL is to ensure that fires create no threat to the public or hazards to employees, and to prevent unauthorized, unregulated, and unplanned fires. Property damage from fire must be held to a minimum, as must the impact of fire and related perils on the LBNL mission and programs.

This policy requires adherence to and compliance with all applicable laws, orders, regulations, codes, standards, guides, policies, and good practices pertaining to fire prevention and protection. General fire prevention requirements and roles and responsibilities are provided by this policy. The LBNL Fire Prevention Program is described in Appendix A.

There may be occasions when a specific work activity or facility requires a deviation from these established requirements. In those cases, organizations shall request and obtain written authority to deviate from the requirements. This written approval can take two forms: 

    • Exemption. An exemption is written authority to deviate from a requirement or standard. Fire protection exemptions must be processed in accordance with Berkeley Lab’s Fire Protection Program, Work Process M, which describes the authority having jurisdiction in evaluating and granting such requests. (See Section 2.2.8 of the LBNL Fire Protection Program, in the Appendices, for more detail.)
    • Equivalency. An equivalency is an approved, alternate means of satisfying the technical provisions of the applicable fire protection code or standard fire protection exemptions must be processed in accordance with Berkeley Lab’s Fire Protection Program, Work Process M, which describes the authority having jurisdiction in evaluating and granting such requests. (See Section 2.2.9 of the LBNL Fire Protection Program, Appendix A.)

12.2 Emergency Procedures for Fires and Other Fire-Related Emergencies

1. Evacuate the immediate area in which there is a fire or a threat of fire and close the door.

2. Call the Fire Department:

From all LBNL telephones, call the number shown on the telephone, which is always 7911 when on site, and 9911 when off site.  If you call from a cell phone, dial 911 and be sure to give your address and location, as you will be routed to the California Highway Patrol.

When reporting an emergency, it is important to identify yourself and be as detailed as possible. Report the following:

  • Your name and specific location of the emergency, including room and building number, or nearest building, if possible, and phone number you are calling from.
  • The nature and severity of the emergency, for example, structure fire, fire in lab hood, gas leak, explosion, or spill of hazardous materials.

  • 3. Activate the nearest fire alarm to evacuate the occupants of the building.

    4. Do not attempt to extinguish a fire involving a building's structure or a building containing explosives, radioactive materials, or highly toxic materials.

    5. Do not attempt to extinguish a fire unless you have been trained in the use of fire extinguishers and have a clear escape route.

    REPORT FIRES, SMOKE, OR ANY POTENTIAL FIRE HAZARDS TO THE FIRE DEPARTMENT.

    IN AN EMERGENCY, CALL:

    12.3 Emergency Procedures for Hazardous Material Spills

    Think safety first. Isolate the area and deny entry. Call for help.

    To report a hazardous material release or spill, call the Fire Department, ext. 7911 (on site) or ext. 9-911 (on campus).The Fire Department will respond to manage and control the emergency situation. Refer to the LBNL Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan for additional information regarding spill response.

    The person reporting the spill should provide the fire dispatcher with the name of chemical(s) involved, quantity, state (gas, liquid, solid), possible contamination, spill locations, other active hazards, and injury information. This person should also offer this same information to the responding firefighters when they arrive on scene.

    12.4 Medical Emergencies

    1. Persons with first aid training may volunteer to administer first aid, applying first aid at once if the victim is not breathing, circulation has stopped, or heavy bleeding is occurring.
    2. IF YOU ARE ADMINISTERING FIRST AID, DO NOT LEAVE THE SCENE TO REPORT THE INJURY. CALL FOR HELP. YOU MUST ATTEMPT TO RESTORE BREATHING AND CIRCULATION AND STOP ANY BLEEDING.
    3. Instruct a bystander to call the Fire Department, ext. 7911 (on site), 9911 (off site), or 911 if a cellular phone is used.

    12.5 Fire Protection Equipment (Work Process B)

    Portable and fixed fire protection equipment is provided for operating areas. Fire protection equipment in operating areas consists of both fixed and portable items to detect fires, alert personnel, and suppress and minimize the spread of fire. Fixed equipment includes detectors, alarms, fire doors, fire dampers, automatic sprinkler systems, and other automatic fire-suppression systems. Portable equipment consists of fire extinguishers, which are required and available in buildings, and any specialized equipment that a firefighting team may bring to an area.

    Fixed fire protection equipment shall be designed, installed, tested, and maintained in accordance with the requirements of the applicable LBNL specifications and standards as well as the applicable NFPA code or standard. Section 3.6 of the LBNL Fire Protection Program (see Appendix A) contains more detailed information on the Laboratory’s fire protection equipment testing, inspection, and maintenance program.

    12.5.1 Portable Fire Estinguishers

    Portable fire extinguishers are provided for employees to use before the Fire Department arrives. However, it is unsafe for personnel to use a fire extinguisher to control a fire if they have not been trained in fire extinguisher operation. Personnel who have not been trained in the use of fire extinguishers shall not attempt to use them. A schedule of training is available through EH&S.

    Table 12-1 (below) provides a summary of the recommended types of portable fire extinguishers.  For guidance on the details regarding the selection of the proper fire extinguisher, contact the Fire Marshal.

    Table 12-1. Effective Fire Extinguishers for Burning Materials

    Burning Materials

    Extinguisher

    Ordinary combustible materials, such as cellulose products, wood, paper, cloth, plastics, or rubber

    Water, multipurpose dry chemical (ABC), or Halogenated Agent

    Flammable or combustible liquids, such as oils, gasoline, alcohol, and solvents

    Carbon dioxide, Halogenated Agent, or dry chemical (BC or ABC)

    Energized electrical equipment or wiring 

    Carbon dioxide, Halogenated Agent, or dry chemical (BC or ABC)

    Burning magnesium, thorium, uranium, potassium, or sodium metals

    G-1 powder (special graphite) or Met-L-X (sodium chloride)

    Fires in cooking appliances involving combustible media (oils and fats)

    Wet Chemical

    Fire extinguishers are serviced annually. Any used or damaged extinguishers should be reported to the Fire Marshal.

    12.5.2 Fire Detection Systems

    Several types of automatic fire detectors are used at LBNL. All on-site fire detection systems transmit an alarm to the Berkeley Lab Fire Dispatch Center when activated. Signals from fire alarm systems installed in the off-site buildings will be transmitted to fire/burglar alarm monitoring services available locally under contract with the building owner or LBNL. The fire/burglar alarm monitoring services will contact local police and fire departments.

    12.5.3 Evacuation Alarms

    All buildings at LBNL are equipped with evacuation alarm bells or horn strobes. These are activated by either an automatic detector or a manual pull box. In some cases, automatic detectors also activate automatic extinguishing systems. The Berkeley Lab Fire Dispatch Center will dispatch firefighters to the scene when an alarm is activated.

    Evacuation procedures for each building and operating area, as well as personnel emergency actions for each building, are published in the respective Building Emergency Plan.

    12.5.4 Automatic Sprinklers

    Many buildings at LBNL have automatic sprinkler systems. The sprinklers contain a heat sensitive element that, upon being sufficiently heated, opens that sprinkler, starting water flow. This flow in the piping activates an alarm at the Berkeley Lab Fire Dispatch Center.

    When automatic sprinkler heads are installed below 7 feet above the finished floor or are subjected to mechanical abuse, sprinkler guards shall be installed to prevent such damage.

    Heat inadvertently applied to a sprinkler head can activate the sprinkler without the presence of fire.

    KEEP NORMAL HEAT SOURCES AWAY FROM SPRINKLER HEADS.

    To avoid obstructing sprinklers and altering the sprinklers’ spray patterns, do not place material or furniture near sprinkler heads.

    FOLLOWING NFPA 13, ALLOW CLEARANCE BELOW SPRINKLER HEADS, TYPICALLY 18 INCHES.

    MAINTAIN ACCESS FOR THE FIRE DEPARTMENT TO REACH SPRINKLER SYSTEM CONTROL VALVES.

    MAINTAIN A MINIMUM CLEARANCE OF 91 CM (3 FEET) AT ALL TIMES AROUND THE VALVES.

    12.5.5 Fire Doors and Dampers

    Self-closing and automatic fire doors and dampers are located at strategic points. A damper is a door in an air-handling system that closes to prevent smoke from being spread throughout the system.

    Automatic fire doors close and latch to block the spread of smoke and fire when automatic detectors are activated.

    Fire doors must be maintained in good repair at all times. Never block or otherwise prevent fire doors from functioning.

    Self-closing fire doors are designed and installed to reclose automatically after being opened.

    NEVER BLOCK, WEDGE, OR TIE OPEN SELF-CLOSING FIRE DOORS.

    IF THE DOORS MUST REMAIN OPEN, REPLACE THE SELF-CLOSING MECHANISM WITH AN APPROVED AUTOMATIC SMOKE-ACTIVATED RELEASE HOLD-OPEN DEVICE.

    CONTACT THE Work Request Center IN THE FACILITIES DIVISION, EXT. 6274, FOR ASSISTANCE WITH THIS CONVERSION.

    12.5.6 Fire Hydrants

    The Fire Department maintains on-site fire hydrants for emergency use. These must be accessible and in good working order at all times. To use a fire hydrant on a temporary basis, obtain authorization in writing from the Fire Marshal.

    Employees or contractors who have temporary authorization to use a fire hydrant must:

  • Use only valve outlets provided by the Plumbing Shop.
  • Use only the hydrant spanner provided by the Fire Department.
  • Supervise the connections while in use, except at construction sites.
  • Close hydrant valves one-eighth of a turn after fully opening it. The hydrant valve must be closed SLOWLY to prevent damage to the water main as a result of the water hammer effect.
  • Replace outlet caps after using the hydrant, and tighten these caps by hand.
  • 12.6 Hot Work Permits (Work Process H)

    LBNL's program to reduce fire hazards includes a hot work permit system. Permits are required for any operation (i.e., hot work) that produces flames, sparks, heat, or a spark-producing operation, including but not limited to the following tasks:

    Note: Permits are not required for:

    12.6.1 Permit Process

    Hot work permits are documents issued by the Fire Marshal or his or her representative. Berkeley Lab’s hot work process is to be strictly followed for all hot work on Berkeley Lab property and buildings leased off site. For details on obtaining a hot work permit, see Hot Work Permits and Designated Area Standard Operating Guidelines.

    12.7 Combustibles (Work Process F, Work Process G)

    Combustible materials are divided into five types or classes, described in the following paragraphs:

    12.7.1 Class A Combustibles

    Class A combustibles include common combustible materials (e.g., wood, paper, cloth, rubber, and plastics) that can act as fuel and are found in nonspecialized operating areas (e.g., offices).

    To handle Class A combustibles safely:

  • Dispose of waste daily.
  • Keep all trash in metal or metal-lined receptacles with tight-fitting covers. Metal wastebaskets that are emptied every day do not need to be covered.
  • Use outdoor ash cans to extinguish smoking materials.
  • Keep work areas clean and free of fuel paths that could allow a fire to spread.
  • Keep combustibles away from accidental ignition sources (e.g., hot plates, soldering irons, and other heat- or spark-producing devices).
  • Store rags in metal bins with self-closing lids.
  • Do not order excessive amounts of combustibles. An excess could increase fuel loads, cause housekeeping problems and, if not stored properly, could become a fire hazard.
  • Make frequent inspections to anticipate fires before they start.
  • The following fire extinguishing agents are approved for Class A combustibles:

  • Water
  • Multipurpose dry chemical (ABC)
  • Halon 1211
  • (Note: Halons, including Halon 1211, have been identified as ozone-depleting substances and, as such, have been targeted for removal. Federal regulations require that DOE and contract facilities phase out halon (and other chlorofluorocarbons) at prescribed time periods.)

    12.7.2 Class B Combustibles

    Class B combustibles include flammable and combustible liquids (e.g., oils, greases, tars, oil-based paints, and lacquers), flammable gases, and flammable aerosols such as those found in spray cans. (See the Pressure Safety and Cryogenics chapter of this manual and the Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan.)

    DO NOT USE WATER TO EXTINGUISH CLASS B FIRES CAUSED BY FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS. WATER CAN CAUSE BURNING LIQUID TO SPREAD, WORSENING THE FIRE.

    TO EXTINGUISH A FIRE CAUSED BY FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS, EXCLUDE THE AIR AROUND THE BURNING LIQUID.

    The following fire extinguishing agents are approved for Class B combustibles:

  • Carbon dioxide
  • Multipurpose dry chemical (ABC)
  • Halon 1301
  • Halon 1211
  • Technically, flammable and combustible liquids do not burn. They can, however, generate sufficient quantities of vapors to form ignitable vapor-air mixtures.

    The flashpoint of a liquid is defined as the minimum temperature at which the liquid gives off sufficient vapor to form an ignitable mixture with the air near its surface or within the vessel used.

    Generally, the lower the flashpoint of a liquid, the greater the risk of fire and explosion. Many flammable and combustible liquids also pose health hazards, as discussed in the Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan.

    Class B combustibles must be properly identified, labeled, handled, and stored. Contact the Fire Marshal, for assistance.

  • Use only approved containers, tanks, equipment, and apparatus for storage, handling, and use of Class B combustibles. (See Table 12-2 below for maximum sizes of containers.)
  • Store quantities greater than 38 liters (10 gallons) of flammable liquids in approved storage cabinets or special rooms approved for such storage.
  • Label the contents of all containers accurately and conspicuously.
  • Table 12-2. Maximum Sizes of Containers for Combustible and Flammable Liquids[a]

    Container Type[b]

    Flammable Liquids

    Combustible Liquids

    Class IA[d]

     Class IB[c]

    Class IC

    Class II

    Class III

    Glass

    1 pt

    1 qt

    1 gal

    1 gal

    5 gal

    Metals (other than DOT drums) or approved plastic

    1 gal

    5 gal

    5 gal

    5 gal

    5 gal

    Safety cans

    2 gal

    5 gal

    5 gal

    5 gal

    5 gal

    Metal drums (DOT specifications)

    60 gal (Labs[d]-
    1 gal)

    60 gal (Labs[d]
    5 gal)

    60 gal (Labs[d]-
    5 gal)

    60 gal

    60 gal

    Approved portable tanks

    660 gal

    660 gal

    660 gal

    660 gal

    660 gal

    Table 12-2 Notes:

    a

    Taken from NFPA 30 (Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code.  Definitions follow this NFPA 30 standard: Class I liquids are flammable, and Class II liquids are combustible;  Class 1A liquids have a flash point (FP) below 73°F, and boiling point (BP) below 100°F; Class 1B – FP below 73°F, and BP at or above 100°F; Class 1C – FP at or above 73°F, but less than 100°F (BP not addressed); Class II – FP at or above 100°F, but below 140°F; Class III – FP at or above 140°F.

    b

     

    Container exemptions: medicines, beverages, foodstuffs, cosmetics, and other common consumer items, provided as such.

    c

    Items have been packaged according to commonly accepted practices for retail sales. Class IA and Class IB liquids may be stored in glass containers (capacity ≤1 gal) if the required liquid purity (such as ACS analytical reagent grade or higher) would be affected by storage in metal containers, or if the liquid can cause excessive corrosion of the metal container.

    d

    Laboratories within the scope of NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals.

    _____________

    To handle Class B combustibles safely:

  • Use only approved pumps, taking suction from the top, to dispense liquids from tanks, drums, barrels, or similar containers; or use approved self-closing valves or faucets.
  • Class I flammable liquids (liquids having flash points below 73°F, or boiling points below 100°F) shall not be dispensed into containers unless the nozzle and container are electrically interconnected by contact or by means of a bonding wire. Either the tank or the container shall be grounded. This is to avoid building up of static electricity. (See NFPA 77, Recommended Practice on Static Electricity for additional guidance.) Containers of glass or other nonconducting materials of 19 liters (5 gal) or less can be filled without special precautions.
  • Store, handle, and use Class B combustibles only in approved locations where vapors are prevented from reaching ignition sources (e.g., heating or electrical equipment, open flames, or mechanical or electrical sparks).
  • Carefully control the use of flammable liquid as cleaning agents, limiting the quantities of liquid and providing adequate ventilation so that airborne vapors don’t pose a fire or inhalation hazard [Exception: closed machines approved by a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory for cleaning with flammable liquids]. 
  • Do not use, handle, or store Class B combustibles near exits, stairways, or any other areas normally used as exits.
  • Do not weld, cut, grind, or use unsafe electrical appliances or equipment near Class B combustibles.
  • Do not generate heat, allow an open flame, or smoke near Class B combustibles.
  • Know the location of and how to use the nearest portable fire extinguisher rated for Class B fire.

    THE FIRE DEPARTMENT OFFERS A COURSE ON FIRE EXTINGUISHER SAFETY (EHS 530).

    FOR INFORMATION ON FIRE EXTINGUISHERS, CALL THE FIRE MARSHAL.

    FOR ENROLLMENT, CALL EH&S TRAINING COORDINATOR, 495-2228.

    EMPLOYEES TRAINED IN FIRE EXTINGUISHER USE MAY USE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS WHILE WAITING FOR THE FIRE DEPARTMENT TO ARRIVE. REFER TO THE SECTION OF THIS CHAPTER ON EMERGENCY PROCEDURES FOR FIRES.

  • 12.7.3 Class C Combustibles

    Class C combustibles are energized electrical equipment which, when de-energized, would be classified as Class A or B combustibles.

    The following fire extinguishing agents are approved for Class C combustibles:

  • Carbon dioxide
  • Multipurpose dry chemical (ABC)
  • Halon 1301
  • Halon 1211
  • 12.7.4 Class D Combustibles

    Class D combustibles are combustible metals such as magnesium, thorium, potassium, or sodium metals. Class D combustibles present special fire safety and extinguishing problems. For guidance on safe handling of combustible metals and selection of the proper extinguishing agent, contact the Fire Marshal.

    12.7.5 Class K Combustibles

    Class K combustibles are cooking media, such as vegetable or animal oils and fats. This class of combustibles requires extinguishing agents that are specifically listed and labeled for use on Class K fires.  For guidance on selection of the proper extinguisher agent, contact the Fire Marshal.

    12.8 Portable Heating Devices (Work Process J)

    Portable heating devices include portable electric space heaters, coffee pots, and hot plates. Portable heating devices may only be used when there is no chance of injury or fire occurring from their use. This applies both to LBNL and personally owned devices used within LBNL spaces on site and LBNL leased spaces off site.

    12.8.1 Portable Space Heaters

    When an electric space heater is used (propane, kerosene, or solid fuel portable space heaters are prohibited), the following safety rules should be followed:

    Minimum Safety Features
    Use
    Placement

    Should you have any questions or concerns, please contact the Fire Marshal or the Electrical Safety Engineer.

    12.8.2 Other Portable Heating Devices (Coffee Pots and Hot Plates)

    Use
    Placement

    12.9 Mechanical Equipment and Fan Rooms

    Mechanical equipment rooms house boilers, blowers, compressors, filters, and other electrical equipment. These rooms must be separated from other areas of a building by fire-resistant walls and doors.

    NEVER LEAVE FIRE DOORS OPEN IN A MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM.

    Fan rooms house ventilation equipment (e.g., dampers and automatic shutdown equipment). This equipment is often interlocked with a building's smoke and fire detectors.

    NEVER DISABLE FIRE DAMPERS OR OTHER AUTOMATIC SHUTDOWN EQUIPMENT WITHOUT THE APPROVAL OF THE FIRE MARSHAL.

    NEVER USE MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOMS OR FAN ROOMS FOR STORAGE.

    12.10 Construction/Renovation (Work Process L)

    12.10.1 Construction/Renovation Review and Approval

    All work related to buildings and their infrastructure must be reviewed and approved by the Fire Marshal Office. Whether the work is prepared by the in-house Facilities Architects/Engineers Group or by outside architects or engineers, the design package, including drawings and specifications at various stages, must be submitted to the Fire Marshal Office for review and approval. See Section 3.4 of the LBNL Fire Protection Program, in the Appendices, for more detail.

    12.10.2 Construction Areas

    Ensure that construction areas under the control of LBNL or outside contractors are safe from the threat of fire. Maintain access for Laboratory emergency response personnel to reach construction areas and access to fire hydrants at all times.

    12.11 Emergency Lighting

    The Life Safety Code of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA 101) requires emergency lighting within facilities at the following areas:

  • Exit corridors in any office-type building two or more stories above the level of exit discharge.
  • All exit aisles, corridors, and passageways of research and industrial facilities (e.g., laboratories, accelerators, and shops).
  • Elevators, for a period of at least 4 hours (see the CCR Title 8, California Construction Safety Orders and the California Building Code).
  • Emergency lighting that is not required by the code may be installed in areas where egress would be hazardous during a power failure.

    Two types of emergency light fixtures satisfy the code specifications:

  • Battery powered
  • Generator powered
  • Use only rechargeable batteries in battery-operated emergency lights. The battery rating must be sufficient to provide illumination for 1.5 hours if normal lighting fails. When emergency lighting is provided by a generator, the delay must not be greater than 10 seconds.

    12.12 Exit Signs

    The California Fire Code, California Building Code, and the Life Safety Code of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA 101) require that approved exit signs be provided in specific locations in buildings to designate the means of egress from the buildings. The codes specify the minimum size, graphics, power supply, visibility, and conditions for installation of exit signs.

    Exit signs:

  • Must not be installed without the approval of the Fire Marshal or Fire Protection Engineer or his or her authorized representative.
  • Must be installed at all required exit doorways and where necessary to indicate clearly the direction of egress. Access to exits must be marked by an exit sign when the exit or exit pathway is not immediately visible to the occupants.
  • Must be installed where two or more exits are required from a room or area, except when main exterior doors are obvious and clearly identifiable as an exit (e.g., glass doors).
  • Must be illuminated. (Report burned-out lights to the Facilities Division's Work Request Center.)
  • Doors, passages, or stairways that are not exits, but could be mistaken as such, must be identified by a posted sign on the door stating: NOT AN EXIT.

    12.13 Egress Path Markings

    Egress path markings (e.g., arrows or stripping) on floors or walls may be necessary to identify exit routes clearly in certain facilities. Markings should be luminous or phosphorescent to be identifiable in case of power failure.

    12.14 Exit Corridors

    NFPA 101 requires that buildings designed for human occupancy maintain unobstructed exits to facilitate prompt evacuation of building occupants and access for emergency personnel.

    NEVER USE EXIT CORRIDORS FOR:

    PERMANENT STORAGE

    TEMPORARY STORAGE OF FURNITURE, EQUIPMENT, OR SUPPLIES

    STORAGE OF COMBUSTIBLES, INCLUDING RECYCLABLE WASTE OR PAPER

    12.15 Lockers and Cabinets

    In the past, installing metal lockers and cabinets in exit corridors was permitted as long as the lockers and cabinets complied with specific location rules, design characteristics, and storage limitations. These storage practices are no longer considered safe and are in violation of fire and life safety codes. The Facilities and Fire Departments are implementing a phased plan to remove existing storage cabinets from exit corridors. To adhere to the new regulations, use the following guidelines:

  • Do not install storage cabinets in exit corridors.
  • Remove any cabinet that does not have 45-degree angle fairing at its top and sides.
  • Remove cabinets that have not been properly maintained (e.g., doors that do not automatically return to the closed position, or cabinets that are not anchored to the wall).
  • Do not store chemicals, liquids, or combustible materials in cabinets.
  • 12.16 Smoking

    Section 12.16 (Smoking) shall follow the Laboratory’s Regulations and Procedures Manual, Section 2.23(J).

    12.17 Seasonal Decorations

    In observance of certain holidays, some Laboratory facilities are temporarily decorated with Christmas trees and candles. The following precautions shall be taken to ensure safety.

    12.17.1 Christmas Trees

    12.17.2 Candles

    12.18 New Experiments and Research Activities (Work Process C)

    The use and storage of hazardous materials must be in accordance with the California Fire Code as referenced in Section 12.22.

    12.19 Facility Assessment and Appraisal Program (Work Process K)

    DOE orders require sites to have a self-survey appraisal program in place to ensure that their facilities meet DOE fire protection goals and requirements. Refer to Section 5 of  the LBNL Fire Protection Program, in the Appendices,

    12.20 Roles and Responsibilities

    Role

    Responsibility

    Laboratory Director

    • Sets Berkeley Lab fire prevention and protection policy consistent with applicable codes, regulations, and DOE orders
    • Provides and maintains the necessary fire protection program/services to maintain an adequate level of fire and life safety as well as property protection

    Protective Services Department

    • Is charged by the Laboratory Director to develop and administer the Laboratory’s fire prevention and protection program
    • Establishes and defines the requirements that will provide an acceptable degree of life safety to protect Laboratory personnel and the public from fires at Berkeley Lab or any off-site facility
    • Serves as the liaison to external fire- and life-safety agencies
    • Provides technical expertise to achieve DOE fire protection goals and requirements
    • Provides and maintains the necessary staff and resources to ensure the implementation and documentation of the fire protection program

     

    Fire Marshal

    • Is responsible for the overall Fire Prevention and Protection program
    • Enforces, interprets, applies, and implements the Berkeley Lab Fire Prevention and Protection program
    • Has the authority to suspend unsafe operations or activities
    • Ensures Laboratory-wide compliance with fire prevention and protection requirements
    • Delegates to members of the Berkeley Lab Fire Department responsibility and authority for enforcement of the Berkeley Lab Fire Prevention and Protection policy
    • Along with his or her authorized representatives, serves in cooperation with the DOE-Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) in the enforcement and application of the Berkeley Lab Fire Prevention and Protection policy. The DOE Berkeley Site Office (BSO) retains authority to grant equivalencies, exemptions, or variances.

    Fire Department

    • Prevents and controls fires
    • Provides emergency response services to protect people and property from fires, explosions, and other hazardous events
    • Investigates the cause, origin, and circumstances of fires and explosions
    • Responds to all calls received by the Berkeley Lab Fire Dispatch Center
    • Provides first-response rescue and transportation services in medical emergencies
    • Conducts fire-safety inspections
    • Inspects fire extinguishers
    • Develops and maintains up-to-date pre-fire plans to effectively prepare and respond to building emergencies
    • Trains employees in fire safety and fire-extinguisher operation

    Fire Protection Engineer

    • Reviews Facilities Division projects to ensure Berkeley Lab’s compliance with fire- and life-safety requirements for the storage, handling, and use of explosives and flammable, combustible, toxic, corrosive, and other hazardous materials
    • Provides guidance for fire safety in the design, processes, and equipment used in experiments and research projects
    • Conducts fire-risk surveys and fire-hazard analyses, and makes recommendations based on findings
    • Inspects and supervises the testing, repair, and maintenance of automatic fire protection and alarm systems
    • Manages the maintenance and testing program for fire-extinguisher and fixed fire-suppression systems
    • Supports the Fire Marshal in ensuring Laboratory-wide compliance with Fire Prevention and Protection program and policy

    Facilities Division Management

    • Ensures compliance with all fire safety, inspection, and protection requirements for planning, designing, constructing, and installing buildings, structures, systems, and utilities
    • Ensures that all architectural and engineering projects are reviewed by the appropriate EHS Division authorities, including the Fire Marshal
    • Inspects, tests, and maintains the water supply, fire alarms, and fixed fire extinguishing systems

    Supervisors

    • Notify the Fire Department when changes in operation increase the risk of fire or related perils
    • Ensure their employees receive appropriate fire-safety training to work safely and protect Berkeley Lab assets

    Employees

    • Complete all requisite training before working without supervision
    • Conduct operations with minimum risk of fire
    • Report fires, smoke, and potential fire hazards to the Fire Department immediately

    EHS

    • Provides the chemical inventory system and tools to enable the divisions to effectively manage hazardous materials inventories and the Fire Marshal to track compliance with fire control area limits.

     

    12.21 Glossary

    Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) determines the interpretation and application of fire prevention and protection requirements.

    Fixed equipment includes detectors and alarms, automatic fire sprinklers, fire doors and dampers, attached fire hoses, and fire hydrants.

    NFPA is the National Fire Protection Association.

    Portable equipment consists of fire extinguishers.

    12.22 Source Requirements Documents and Standard

    12.23 Related PUB-3000 Chapters

  • EH&S Training (Chapter 24)
  • Emergency Management (Chapter 9)
  • Hazardous Waste Disposal (Chapter 20)
  • Industrial Hygiene (Chapter 4)
  • Pressure Safety and Cryogenics (Chapter 7)
  • Construction Safety (Chapter 10)
  • 12.24 References

  • American Petroleum Institute Guidelines, latest editions
  • Chemical Hygiene and Safety Plan, LBNL, latest edition
  • Compressed Gas Association, Pamphlet P-12, Safe Handling of Cryogenic Liquids
  • Compressed Gas Association, Pamphlet P-12, Safe Handling of Cryogenic Liquids, 6.7
  • Factory Mutual Loss Prevention Data Sheets, latest editions
  • National Fire Protection Association Handbooks, latest editions
  • Master Emergency Plan, PUB-533, LBNL, latest edition
  • Society of Fire Protection Engineers (SFPE) Handbook, latest edition
  • California Health & Safety Code, latest edition
  • _____________________

    << Chapter 11 || Table of Contents || Chapter 13 >>