Alex Zettl and Qin Zhou of Berkeley Lab have developed a miniaturized graphene-based electrostatic audio transducer. The speaker / earphone is straightforward in design and operation and has excellent frequency response across the entire audio frequency range (20 Hz - 20k Hz) with performance matching or surpassing commercially available audio earphones. Details of this technology are available in the researchers' publication and other articles listed below.
Graphene has extremely low mass density and high mechanical strength, key qualities for efficient wide-frequency-response electrostatic audio speaker design. Low mass ensures good high frequency response, while high strength allows for relatively large free-standing diaphragms necessary for effective low frequency response.
STATUS: Patent pending. Available for licensing or collaborative research.
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REFERENCE NUMBER: IB 2013-030